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Herpes Simplex [296]

 

Herpes Simplex

HERPES  VIRUS INFECTION

  • Herpes Simplex is a very common viral infection presented with localised blister formation.
  • It affects most of the people once or more times in their lives.
  • The Two main types of Herpes Simplex Virus are
  • HSV-1 ,  this types of virus is mainly associated with cold sores and fever blisters.
  • HSV-2 , this type of virus mainly effects the genetal area called genital herpes.
  • HSV1 & 2 resides in a latent state in the nerves which supply sensation to the skin. Whenever there is a attck of this virus , it grows in the nerves and comes out into the skin or mucous membranes , here it multiplies and forms a lesion on the skin. After  the attack it dies and goes back to the nerve fibres and enters in the resting state.
  • HSV-1 usually effects the infants and young children.
  • HSV-2 is usually Sexually Transmitted and mainly effects in Puberty.

CAUSES
HSV -1 spreads through oral secretions or sores on the skin ,usually spread through kissing or sharing objects like toothbrush or utesenils.
A person can only gets herpes type 2 during sexual contact with someone who already has Genital virus HSV-2 infection. It is very important to know that both HSV-1 & 2 may spread from one to another even if no sores are present.
If a pregnant female have gential herpes , it may pass on to the baby during child birth.
The following conditions are also cause of HSV

  • Condition of illness from mild to serious
  • Immunosuppression due to AIDS
  • Chemotherapy and Steroids or other immunosupperesent medications
  • Trauma of the affectes area
  • Unprotected Sexual Activities
  • Physical or emotional Stress conditions
  • Fatigue
  • Menstruation

DIAGNOSIS
The clinical feature and appearance of the lesions of herpes are so typical that there is no need of testing. But it can be diagnosed from lab via DNA or PCR test and Viral Culture
HERPES ZOSTER ( SHINGLES)
Herpes Zoster is the painful blisters caused by the reactivation of varicella virus that causes chicken pox.
It is also known as Shingles.
Chichenpox usually occurs in childhood and the virus seeded to the nerve cells in the spinal cord ,usually to that nerves that supply sensation to th skin.
The virus remains in the resting phase in these nerve cells for years and any time it may reactivate and grow to produce Herpes Zoster. HZ may occur in childhood but most of the time it presented in adults and  especially elderly people.
WHO GETS SHINGLES ?
Anyone who has previously had Chicken Pox may get it any time to any gender at any age.
It is more common and severe in the patients with poor immunity. The blisters of herpes may occurs in more than one area and may affect internal organs including gatrointestinal tract , lungs and brain.
CLINICAL PRESENTATION 
Pain is thr first feature of this , which may be modrate to severe. Patient feels fever , headache and uncomfortable. The lymph nodes draining the affected area may get swollen ,enlarged and tender
The blister formation occurs in the painful area after two three days of the onset of pain. In children  it may be painless.
It moves as the path of nerve and new lesions continuous to appear for several days. Shingles occosionally causes blisters inside the mouth or ears and may also affect the genetial area.
The pain and the other symptoms  subside gradually as the eruptions disappears. In uncomplicated cases the total recovery takes 2-3 weeks in children and adults but in elder patients it may take 4 to 5 weeks.
POST HERPETIC NEURALGIA
 This is the term used for persistent pain for more than month after the onset of herpes zoster. It is most common in the patients over 40 and those who have facial involvement during infection. Pain may be continuous and burning with increased sensitivity on the affected areas.

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